A few key allusions in Canicula di Anna by Anne Carson

A few key allusions in Canicula di Anna by Anne Carson

 

 

Pietro Vannucci—Perugino, byname of Pietro di Cristoforo Vannucci   (born c. 1450, Città della Pieve, near Perugia, Romagna [Italy]—died February/March 1523, Fontignano, near Perugia), Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbria school and the teacher of Raphael. His work (e.g., Giving of the Keys to St. Peter, 1481–82, a fresco in the Sistine Chapel in Rome) anticipated High Renaissance ideals in its compositional clarity, sense of spaciousness, and economy of formal elements. For more seehttp://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/453287/Perugino

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9f/Cimabue_033.jpg/220px-Cimabue_033.jpg Cimabue—original name Bencivieni di Pepo, modern Italian Benvenuto di Giuseppe   (born before 1251—died 1302), painter and mosaicist, the last great Italian artist in the Byzantine style, which had dominated early medieval painting in Italy. Among his surviving works are the frescoes of New Testament scenes in the upper church of S. Francesco, Assisi; the Sta. Trinità Madonna (c. 1290); and the Madonna Enthroned with St. Francis (c. 1290–95). For more, see: http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/117871/Cimabue

Phenomenology (from Greek: phainómenon “that which appears”; and lógos “study”) is the philosophical study of the structures of subjective experience and consciousness. As a philosophical movement it was founded in the early years of the 20th century by Edmund Husserl and was later expanded upon by a circle of his followers at the universities of Göttingen and Munich in Germany. Now Transcendental Phenomenology is the study of the essential structures that are left in pure consciousness: This amounts in practice to the study of the noemata and the relations among them. The philosopher Theodor Adorno criticised Husserl’s concept of phenomenological epistemology in his metacritique Against Epistemology, which is anti-foundationalist in its stance. Transcendental phenomenologists include Oskar Becker, Aron Gurwitsch, and Alfred Schutz. Realist phenomenologists include Adolf Reinach, Alexander Pfänder, Johannes Daubert, Max Scheler, Roman Ingarden, Nicolai Hartmann, Dietrich von Hildebrand. Existential phenomenologists include: Martin Heidegger (1889–1976), Hannah Arendt (1906–1975), Emmanuel Levinas (1906–1995), Gabriel Marcel (1889–1973), Jean-Paul Sartre (1905–1980), Paul Ricoeur (1913–2005) and Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908–1961).

Martin Heidegger—born in Baden-Württemburg in 1889-died in Freiburg in 1976

http://www.textetc.com/theory/heidegger.html provides a wonderful overview, mentioning Heidegger’s philosophy is based out of Husserl’s teachings, though he took it in a new direction. “Heidegger came to regard language as the ultimate reality, … calling poetry the most authentic language, Heidegger in fact uses poetry for illustration of his own ideas.” Wrote 70 volumes in his life, including Being and Time (1923), a monumental project which was never fully completes but in which “Heidegger was attempting to find a new way of regarding the world, and to forge a language to match.” Heidegger is a much-debated figure also because of his politics—being pro-Nazi for a time, so the French banned him from lecturing until 1950. What is most important is his term DASEIN—as Wiki put it “Martin Heidegger criticized Husserl’s theory of phenomenology and attempted to develop a theory of ontology that led him to his original theory of Dasein, the non-dualistic human being.” Here is an extract from the abovementioned site Textetc regarding Heidegger’s philosophy of Dasein:

BEING AND TIME: “What is “being” asks Heidegger in Being and Time? His answer was to distinguish what it is for beings to be beings (Sein) from the existence of entities in general (Seindes). Seindes was “ontic” — i.e. makes reference, allows us to talk about things. It was simply a “place holder” and applied to relations, processes, events, etc. Sein was more fundamental: Heidegger was concerned with something he felt had been overlooked since the pre-Socratics. Descartes, for example, simply sidestepped the problem of ontology (philosophy of being) by dividing the world into three (God, the exterior world, and mental processes) and depicting the essentials of the exterior world in terms of time and the three spatial dimensions. This leads him in all kinds of difficulties, and evaded the question we must ask as to what being really is.

Heidegger was very idiosyncratic. He indulged in extended word play, and employed his own spelling, vocabulary and syntax. One famous coining was Dasein: literally “to be there”. Dasein has no essence beyond what it can make itself be — i.e. no fixed nature or inveterate tendency. Man alone has Dasein, and he cannot escape it. Nor is there anything more fundamentally human, to which he can dedicate his life. The world is disclosed to us through and in Dasein: disclosed without mediation by concepts, propositions and inner mental states. Truth is Dasein’s disclosedness. We are “thrown” into the world. Heidegger rejected the correspondence theory of truth, and regarded as a scandal the continual attempt by philosophy to centre knowledge on mental processes.

What is this Dasein? Start with things in the world, said Heidegger: everyday things like tools, materials, workspace. Are they not there for a purpose, to do something? They do not exist in isolation, waiting for the philosopher to extract the essence “tool”, for instance, and then worry about enclosing and defining the term properly. Their complex relationships with other things (people and material objects) is what is most relevant about them, and this cuts across the usual boundaries of objective/subjective, animate/inanimate, or past/present/future. Time is not an abstract entity, something in which we are borne passively along, but an opportunity to do something. Or it is for us human beings who have Dasein (choice) and we therefore owe things in the world a duty of care (Sorge).

But if we continually define ourselves, we also change the way we regard the world. And that in turn redefines us. Nothing is innate, not even Dasein. Other things in the world (Seindes) may be relatively fixed but man is different. Above all he faces conscience, dread, awareness of death, all of which call man back to himself, to question his authenticity. Hence the importance of these in Heidegger’s writings, which he viewed ontologically, not merely matters of psychological or sociological explanation.{3}

 

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel—(often known as G. W. F. Hegel or Georg Hegel) (born in Stuttgart in 1770 – died in Berlin of Cholera in 1831) was a German philosopher of the early Modern period. He was a leading figure in the German Idealism movement in the early 19th Century, although his ideas went far beyond earlier Kantianism, and he founded his own school of Hegelianism which later influenced Marx and his Marxist writings. Here is an explanation of some of his key reflections and work: (source / for more: http://www.philosophybasics.com/philosophers_hegel.html)

Hegel only published 4 main books in his life. “Phänomenologie des Geistes” (“Phenomenology of Mind”) in 1807, his account of the evolution of consciousness from sense-perception to absolute knowledge; the three volumes of “Wissenschaft der Logik” (“Science of Logic”) in 1811, 1812 and 1816, the logical and metaphysical core of his philosophy; “Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften” (“Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences”) in 1816, a summary of his entire philosophical system, intended as a textbook for a university course; and “Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts” (“Elements of the Philosophy of Right”) in 1821, his political philosophy and his thoughts on “civil society”. A number of other works on the Philosophy of History, Philosophy of Religion, Aesthetics, and the history of philosophy were compiled from the lecture notes of his students and published posthumously.

He developed a new form of thinking and Logic, which he called “speculative reason” (which includes the more famous concept of “dialectic”) to try to overcome what he saw as the limitations of both common sense and of traditional philosophy at grasping philosophical problems and the relation between thought and reality. His method was to begin with ultra-basic concepts (like Being and Nothing), and to develop these through a long sequence of elaborations towards solutions that take the form of series of concepts. He employed the tried-and-tested process of dialectic (which dates back to Aristotle and involves resolving a thesis and its opposing antithesis into a synthesis), but asserted that this logical process was not just a matter of form as separate from content, but had applications and repercussions in the real world. He also took the concept of the dialectic one step further, arguing that the new synthesis is not the final truth of the matter, but rather became the new thesis with its corresponding antithesis and synthesis. This process would continue effectively ad infitum, until reaching the ultimate synthesis, which is what Hegel called the Absolute Idea.

Hegel’s main philosophical project, then, was to take the contradictions and tensions he saw throughout modern philosophy, culture and society, and interpret them as part of a comprehensive, evolving, rational unity that, in different contexts, he called “the absolute idea” or “absolute knowledge”. He believed that everything was interrelated and that the separation of reality into discrete parts (as all philosophers since Aristotle had done) was wrong.”

As Wiki puts it, “For G.W.F. Hegel, phenomenology is an approach to philosophy that begins with an exploration of phenomena (what presents itself to us in conscious experience) as a means to finally grasp the absolute, logical, ontological and metaphysical Spirit that is behind phenomena. This has been called a “dialectical phenomenology“.”

Assignment Solutions