Black Lives Matter Movement Journal

Black Lives Matter Movement Journal

THE HANDBOOK OF JOURNALISM STUDIES This second edition of The Handbook of Journalism Studies explores the current state of research in journalism studies and sets an agenda for future development of the field in an international context. The volume is structured around theoretical and empirical approaches to journalism research and covers scholarship on news production, news content, journalism and society, journalism and culture, and journalism studies in a global context. As journalism studies has become richer and more diverse as a field of studies, the second edition reflects both the growing diversity of the field and the ways in which journalism itself has undergone rapid change in recent years. Emphasizing comparative and global perspectives, this new edition explores: • • • • • • • Key elements, thinkers, and texts Historical context Current state of the field Methodological issues Merits and advantages of the approach/­area of studies Limitations and critical issues of the approach/­area of studies Directions for future research Offering broad international coverage from world-­ leading contributors, this volume is a comprehensive resource for theory and scholarship in journalism studies. As such, it is a must-­ have resource for scholars and graduate students working in journalism, media studies, and communication around the globe. Karin Wahl-­Jorgensen is Professor in the Cardiff School of Journalism, Media, and Culture, Cardiff University, Wales, where she serves as Director of Research Development and Environment. Her most recent books include Emotions, Media and Politics (2019) and Digital Citizenship in a Datafied Society (2019). She has published multiple other monographs and edited collections and just under 100 journal articles and book chapters. Thomas Hanitzsch is Professor of Communication in the Department of Media and Communication at LMU Munich, Germany. A former journalist, his teaching and research focuses on global journalism cultures and war coverage. His most recent books include Worlds of Journalism (2019) and the Handbook of Comparative Communication Research (Routledge, 2012). INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION (ICA) HANDBOOK SERIES Robert T. Craig, Series Editor Selected titles include: Edited by Jesper Strömbäck and Lynda Lee Kaid—The Handbook of Election News Coverage Around the World Edited by Karin Wahl-­Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch—The Handbook of Journalism Studies Edited by George Cheney, Steve May, and Debashish Munshi—The Handbook of Communication Ethics Edited by Frank Esser and Thomas Hanitzsch—The Handbook of Comparative Communication Research Edited by Howard Giles—The Handbook of Intergroup Communication Edited by Peter Simonson, Janice Peck, Robert T. Craig, and John Jackson—The Handbook of Communication History Edited by Donal Carbaugh—The Handbook of Communication in Cross-­cultural Perspective Edited by Bryan C. Taylor and Hamilton Bean—The Handbook of Communication and Security Edited by Karin Wahl-­Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch—The Handbook of Journalism Studies, 2nd edition THE HANDBOOK OF JOURNALISM STUDIES 2ND EDITION Edited by Karin Wahl-­Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch Second edition published 2020 by Routledge 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, NY 10017 and by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2020 Taylor & Francis The right of Karin Wahl-­Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch to be identified as the authors of the editorial material, and of the authors for their individual chapters, has been asserted in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. First edition published by Routledge 2009 Library of Congress Cataloging-­in-­Publication Data Names: Wahl-Jorgensen, Karin, editor. | Hanitzsch, Thomas, 1969– editor. Title: The handbook of journalism studies / edited by Karin Wahl-Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch. Description: 2nd edition. | New York, NY : Routledge, 2019. | Series: International Communication Association (ICA) handbook series | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2019008919 | ISBN 9781138052888 (hardback) | ISBN 9781138052895 (paperback) | ISBN 9781315167497 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Journalism. Classification: LCC PN4724.H36 2019 | DDC 070.4—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019008919 ISBN: 978-­1-­138-­05288-­8 (hbk) ISBN: 978-­1-­138-­05289-­5 (pbk) ISBN: 978-­1-­315-­16749-­7 (ebk) Typeset in Times New Roman and Helvetica by Apex CoVantage, LLC Contents Series Editor’s Foreword Robert T. Craig ix About the Editors xi xiii List of Contributors PART I: INTRODUCING JOURNALISM STUDIES 1 Journalism Studies: Developments, Challenges, and Future Directions Karin Wahl-­Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch 3 2 Journalism History Martin Conboy 21 3 Journalism Theory Laura Ahva and Steen Steensen 38 4 Journalism Education Beate Josephi 55 PART II: NEWS PRODUCTION 5 News Organizations and Routines Oscar Westlund and Mats Ekström 73 6 Journalists as Gatekeepers Tim P. Vos 90 7 Professionalism, Professional Identity, and Journalistic Roles Thomas Hanitzsch and Henrik Örnebring 105 8 Boundary Work Matt Carlson and Seth C. Lewis 123 9 Objectivity, Professionalism, and Truth Seeking C. W. Anderson and Michael Schudson 136 v vi  Contents 10 Journalism and Witnessing Mervi Pantti 151 11 Reporters and Their Sources Dan Berkowitz 165 12 Computational Journalism Neil Thurman 180 13 Journalism, Social Media, and Online Publics David Domingo 196 PART III: NEWS CONTENT 14 News Values and News Selection Deirdre O’Neill and Tony Harcup 213 15 Framing the News Christian Baden 229 16 News, Discourse, and Ideology Darren Kelsey 246 17 News and Storytelling Karin Wahl-­Jorgensen and Thomas R. Schmidt 261 18 Tabloidization of the News Herman Wasserman 277 PART IV: JOURNALISM AND SOCIETY 19 Journalism and Democracy David Ryfe 293 20 Journalism Ethics Stephen J. A. Ward 307 21 Economic Contexts of Journalism Rasmus Kleis Nielsen 324 22 Journalism, Public Relations, and Spin Jim Macnamara 341 23 Journalism, Trust, and Credibility Arjen van Dalen 356 Contents  vii 24 Journalism in War and Conflict Howard Tumber 372 PART V: JOURNALISM AND CULTURE 25 Journalism, Audiences, and News Experience Irene Costera Meijer 389 26 Journalism and Everyday Life Folker Hanusch 406 27 Journalism and Memory Keren Tenenboim-­Weinblatt and Motti Neiger 420 28 Citizen Journalism and Participation Stuart Allan and Arne Hintz 435 29 Gender, Sex, and Newsroom Culture Linda Steiner 452 30 Covering Diversity Elizabeth Poole 469 PART VI: JOURNALISM STUDIES IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT 31 History and Development of Journalism Studies as a Global Field Liane Rothenberger, Irina Tribusean, Andrea C. Hoffmann, and Martin Löffelholz 487 32 Comparative Journalism Research Thomas Hanitzsch 506 33 Journalism and Transitions to Democracy in Eastern Europe Peter Gross 522 34 Journalism and Authoritarian Resilience Cherian George 538 Index555 Series Editor’s Foreword Robert T. Craig In their introduction to this second edition of The Handbook of Journalism Studies, editors Karin Wahl-­Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch aptly note that it is not merely an update of the first edition but that it reflects a comprehensive effort to reconstruct journalism studies as a maturing discipline challenged to engage with the slippery, uncertain, and perilous realities of 21st century journalism in all its global diversity. Accordingly, all but 9 of the 34 chapters assembled for this edition are entirely new, all contributed by internationally prominent scholars. The Handbook is organized in six parts, the first of which presents the editors’ introduction along with overview chapters on journalism history, theory, and education. The remaining parts are concerned with news production, news content, journalism and society, journalism and culture, and journalism studies in a global context. Each chapter explains key concepts, reviews historical and current trends in the literature, and sets the agenda for future research on its topic. For me, several themes stand out across the volume. One, of course, is the ongoing digital revolution that is profoundly transforming every aspect of journalistic practice, professional identity, and institutional structure. The rise of social media has altered the media ecology in which journalism functions, including processes that can make it uncertain who counts as a journalist, encourage public participation, or facilitate the spread of “fake news.” Computational journalism has expanded the potential for data-­based reporting while automated, “robot” newswriting poses new ethical questions. A second theme is to question the tight normative coupling of journalism with liberal democracy, not only because it distracts scholarship from culturally important forms of nonpolitical news but also because it perpetuates a Western bias that distorts our understanding of journalism as it is practiced in different political systems around the globe. The challenges to journalism posed by resurgent authoritarianism and right-­wing populism are mentioned in several chapters, including a fascinating analysis of “authoritarian resilience”—­the sophisticated techniques of media control now being used by authoritarian governments (Chapter 34). Overlapping the concern with Western bias in the identification of journalism with liberal democracy is a third theme, internationalization, which resonates through the broader discipline of communication as well as journalism studies. This Handbook advances the project of globalizing journalism studies beyond the Western and specifically Anglo-­American perspectives that have traditionally dominated the field. The editors characterize journalism studies as a maturing discipline that, as tends to happen in lively research areas, is becoming increasingly diverse and fragmented. Promising new turns toward journalism as discourse and cultural practice and new approaches to audience research, ix x  Series Editor’s Foreword among other trends, enrich journalism studies while making it harder to maintain a coherent sense of the field. If the first edition of The Handbook of Journalism Studies played an important role in coalescing the field, as I believe it did, the second edition can serve to reimagine and revitalize the field at a moment of radical transformation. As such, this edition of the Handbook, like its predecessor, will be an essential resource for professional scholars and advanced students of journalism around the world. About the Editors Karin Wahl-­Jorgensen is Professor in the Cardiff School of Journalism, Media, and Cultural Studies, Cardiff University, UK, where she serves as Director of Research Development and Environment. She has carried out research across a range of areas in journalism studies, with an emphasis on questions around media, citizenship, and emotion. Her most recent books include Emotions, Media and Politics (Polity, 2018) and Digital Citizenship in a Datafied Society (Polity, 2018; with Arne Hintz and Lina Dencik). She has published multiple other monographs and edited collections and just under 100 journal articles and book chapters. Thomas Hanitzsch is Chair and Professor of Communication in the Department of Communication Studies and Media Research at LMU Munich, Germany. A former journalist, he focuses his teaching and research on global journalism cultures, war coverage, celebrity news, and comparative methodology. He was editor-­in-­chief of Communication Theory (2011–2015) and has co-­ edited The Handbook of Journalism Studies (Routledge, 2009); The Handbook of Comparative Communication Research (Routledge, 2012); and Worlds of Journalism: Journalistic Cultures Around the Globe (Columbia University Press, 2019). He is chairman of the Worlds of Journalism Study, a multinational and collaborative endeavor to trace journalism’s transformation around the world. xi Contributors Laura Ahva is Senior Research Fellow at Tampere University, Finland. She has been studying journalistic work practice and professionalism, news audiences, and participatory journalism. She has published in various journals, including Journalism, Journalism Practice, and Digital Journalism. Lately Ahva has worked on emerging forms of journalism, such as constructive journalism. Stuart Allan is Professor and Head of the School of Journalism, Media, and Culture at Cardiff University, UK. He is author of Citizen Witnessing: Revisioning Journalism in Times of Crisis (Polity Press, 2013) and editor of The Routledge Companion to News and Journalism (Routledge, 2012; revised edition) and Photojournalism and Citizen Journalism: Co-­operation, Collaboration and Connectivity (Routledge, 2017). He is currently co-­writing a history of war photography, amongst other projects. C. W. Anderson is Professor of Media and Communication at the University of Leeds, UK, and the author or co-­editor of five books: Rebuilding the News (Temple University Press, 2013); The Sage Handbook of Digital Journalism (Sage, 2016); The News Media: What Everyone Needs to Know (Oxford University Press, 2016); Remaking the News (MIT Press, 2017); and Apostles of Certainty: Data Journalism and the Politics of Doubt (Oxford University Press, 2018). Christian Baden is Senior Lecturer at the Department of Communication and Journalism, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. His research focuses on the collaborative construction of meaning in dynamic public debates, with specific emphasis on resonance processes and resilient beliefs in political conflict and crisis. His publications have contributed to theory and methodology in research on framing, discourse dynamics, and the social and psychological process of sense-­making in a political public sphere. His methodological approach combines techniques of qualitative discourse analysis and frame analysis with network-­analytic perspectives and contemporary strategies for the automated processing of large-­scale discourse. Dan Berkowitz is Professor Emeritus in the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Iowa, USA. His research interests include the study of the relationship between journalists and sources, collective memory, news as mythical narrative, and the connections between media and terrorism. He is the author or co-­author of more than 50 refereed journal articles and book chapters and has published two edited volumes: Social Meanings of News (Sage, 1997) and Cultural Meanings of News (Sage, 2010). Matt Carlson is Associate Professor in the Hubbard School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Minnesota, USA. He is author of Journalistic Authority (Columbia University Press, 2017); is co-­author with Seth C. Lewis of Boundaries of Journalism (Routledge, 2015); and has published over 50 journal articles and book chapters on journalism. Martin Conboy is Professor of Journalism History and Co-­director of the Centre for the Study of Journalism and History at the University of Sheffield, UK. He has produced ten books on the language and history of journalism, most recently with John Steel, The Routledge Companion to xiii xiv  Contributors British Media History (2018) and with Adrian Bingham, Tabloid Century (Peter Lang, 2015). He is on the editorial boards of Journalism Studies; Media History; Journalism: Theory, Practice and Criticism; and Memory Studies. An elected fellow of the Royal Historical Society, his international research has been funded by the British Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). Irene Costera Meijer is Professor of Journalism Studies and head of the Journalism Studies Department at VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands. She also works as Professor II at the Research Group for Media Use and Audience Studies of the Department of Information Science and Media Studies at University of Bergen, Norway. Her research interests focus on changing practices of media consumption and news use and their consequences for media organizations. Irene is on the editorial board of the academic journals Digital Journalism and Journalism Practice. Robert T. Craig, series editor of the ICA Handbook Series, is Professor Emeritus of Communication at the University of Colorado Boulder, USA. He is a Fellow and Past President of the International Communication Association. His teaching and research interests are in the fields of communication theory and philosophy, discourse analysis, and argumentation. Current projects include critical studies of arguments about communication in public discourse and a book on the methodology of grounded practical theory. David Domingo is Chair of Journalism at the Department of Information and Communication Sciences at Université Libre de Bruxelles (Brussels), Belgium. He is co-­responsible of LaPIJ, an action-­research laboratory collaborating with the media industry in developing innovative formats and work practices. His research focuses on innovation processes in online communication, with a special interest in the (re)definition of practices and identities involved in news production, circulation, and use. He is co-­author of Participatory Journalism: Guarding Open Gates at Online Newspapers (Wiley-­Blackwell, 2011) and co-­editor of Making Online News (Peter Lang, 2008) and The Sage Handbook of Digital Journalism (2016). Mats Ekström is Professor at the Department of Journalism, Media, and Communication at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. His research focuses on journalism, media discourse, conversation in institutional settings, political communication, and participation. Recent publications include Right-­Wing Populism and the Dynamics of Style (Palgrave, 2018); Social Media, Porous Boundaries, and the Development of Online Political Engagement Among Young Citizens (2018, in New Media & Society); and The Mediated Politics of Europe: A Comparative Study of Discourse (Palgrave, 2017). Cherian George is Professor of Media Studies at the Journalism Department of Hong Kong Baptist University. He researches media freedom, censorship, and hate propaganda. He is the author of five monographs, including Hate Spin: The Manufacture of Religious Offense and Its Threat to Democracy (MIT Press, 2016) and Freedom from the Press: Journalism and State Power in Singapore (NUS Press, 2012). Before joining academia, he was a journalist with The Straits Times in Singapore. He serves as an adviser to the London-­based Ethical Journalism Network and the Singapore-­based Asia Journalism Fellowship. Peter Gross is Professor in the School of Journalism and Electronic Media at the University of Tennessee, USA. His research specialization is in international communication, with an emphasis on East European media systems. He is the author and co-­author of seven scholarly books and two textbooks and co-­editor of two book collections. Peter received fellowships, lecture awards, and grants from, among other institutions, Harvard University, the National Academy Contributors  xv of Sciences, the In …

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