Compare and contrast the “two worlds” of violence. Then explain fear that may become the same.

Test 1
1)
Early communication theory, and the general study of communication itself grow out of several other areas of investigation and discourse into human activity. How did this evolve and what were some of the shaping and molding concepts, ideas, theories?
it was posited that modern “mass society” evolved over time and changes were not planned, but rather grew somewhat hap-hazardly. Explain the trends presented and then offer some discourse on each of their meanings within the concept of media influence.
2)
it has been argued that the “mass media” functions as many “things” and for several “reasons”. Several early studies addressed the idea that one may have several purposes for the media. Some of the writers of the period were concerned that the media could acause changes that were not acceptable to society. Please note some of these and how they were covered in the body of scholarly work of the period. How are these concerns currently addressed in the research related to the mass media?
Communication research has used many of the findings form other areas of research in human study. It did not com full born into existence. How did this evolve, what were some of the various fields of study and how were the techniques from earlier research study incorporated into what eventually become the field of human communication?
3) Discuss the following theories of mass media effects. Please use example and complete as possible.
Selective Influences
Indirect Influences
4)
The Payne Fund Studies addressed some major concern about the primary visual mass media of the period. The findings from the studies opened the way for far more studies and posited more questions that were answered. Explain the techniques operationalization of the questions and the findings from these seminal studies in order to explain how they posed discourse for further study. How did later examinations of the questions raised help further the study of mass communication? When using examples please note the names of individuals who conducted the research and their contributions.
Early mass media studies addressed the media from an “effects” stand point later studies began to utilize a “uses” stand point. Please define each, identify each. Give example of each, compare and contrast each and discuss the reasons for a move from or to a particular perspective.

5)
During the late 1940s and early 1950s, personal influence was discovered as mitigating incidence in the effects of the mass media message. Explain how these interpersonal effects of the lass media were discovered and discussed, what these concepts had on the explanation of mass media effects and what different kinds of future questions were posed from this initially unplanned discovery.
Critical ability was posited as a major mitigating factor in several of the early studies that directly impacted the fledgling field of communication as it attempted to grow away from its parental influences, discuss how this concept was perceived as influencing mass media message interpretation and how the study of “communication” addressed this other similar emerging instances that did not neatly fit into the available fields of study of human activity.

6) On October 30, 1938, “the war of the worlds” was broadcast on CBS radio mercury theater on the Air. Many people were frightened, many were not; discuss the reasons and what played a major role in determining the panic experienced by some, but not by all. Understanding the limitations that this study had, why would a student of mass media effects consider the task of working through it, what is important about it, how could it be applied to modern communication research and what kind of current questions could its study generate? How could one extrapolate to later investigations in the field of communication?
7) In several of the outside readings, online and chapters in the text, ideas were presented that would lead the mass media student to the thought that the media effect just might not be nearly as powerful or all encompassing as previously imagined. Please discuss this using explanations of these examples.
2
Discuss the concept that attitude and opinion change were considered to be measures of personal. This was because they were assumed to be enduring. Is this assumption still applicable today? Why and how? .(chapter 8)
In light of the information presented in “personal Influence: The Two Step Flow of communication( chapter 9)” “project Revere(chapter 10)” and several outside articles, discuss the concept of a “minimal effects” theory of mass media influence. 12 points

Why are new ideas so difficult to penetrate established social groups? Adoption concepts must move logically within society and must be addressed by significant subgroups of that society before they effectively penetrate the social consciousness of the larger population. What protects typically are followed and why do they indeed act as protocols? Please use your text material, outside readings as well as other information. 12 Points.
Discuss the effects of negative appeals on persuasion. Hovland et al should get the discussion started. 9 points
Discuss the concepts of message diffusion through society and address the processes involved: also, is the initial medium a determiner of diffusion. If so why or if not, why? 9

Discuss the concepts contained within the general thinking of the research Directed toward “uses and gratification” studies of the mass media. 9
The current reading addressed various of propaganda. The text addressed propaganda and the Video presentation also mentioned propaganda. Either by name or by allusion, identify propaganda, define pertinent terms discuss its functions and explain why propaganda and its evasion is an important area in media effects studies. 8 points

3
Choose only two of the following. Answer to the best of your ability. Work quickly and efficiently. Each answer is worth 15 points for the total of 30 points.
Compare and contrast the “two worlds” of violence. Then explain fear that may become the same.
Discuss the idea “that if a child was given love, security and healthful activates in…non TV hours, then there was little chance that television would have negative effects on child.”
Discuss the concepts of the effect theories of the mass media, discuss the concepts of the uses and gratification theories of the mass media, then compare and contrast giving example, if needed, to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses.

Select two of your classmate research papers other then your own. Discuss their sources and their presentations. Explain the significance of each in the overall scheme of the class. Rely on your viewing from the first effort to the final up load on October 11. Each is worth 10 points for a total of 20 points.

Answer to the best of your ability. This question is worth 10 points. Discuss the concepts associated with the agenda setting function of the mass media (use example)

Choose three of the following questions and discuss them to the best of your ability. Each is worth 5 points for a total of 15 points.

Discuss the role of personal influence in media effects
Discuss how the concept of “educational attainment level” has led to a change in mass media research, appeals and the mass media message itself.
Discuss the concept of information diffusion in society. Explain its importance and the processes involved. Answered
Explain the concepts and uses of content analysis. Please discuss how it explains both latent and manifest messages.
Discuss the concept of maximal effects theories of the mass media. Discuss the minimal effects theories of the mass media. Then discuss the direction in which they have led current media theorists in their thinking about the effects of the mass media.






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