Personality Chapter For General Psychology

Personality Chapter

Someone insults you and you spend the next two hours imagining the things you could have (or should have) said to humiliate them. According to Freud, you are engaging in free association.

Select one:

True

False

The BEST kind of personality test is one that is _______.

Select one:

a. reliable, but not necessarily valid

b. valid, but not necessarily reliable

c. neither reliable nor valid

d. both valid and reliable

Jenny is 15 years old. She is capable of mature sexuality, is able to postpone gratification, and handle responsibility. According to Freud, she is in the phallic stage.

Select one:

True

False

Johnny is 8 years old. He likes to play with other little boys, but has no interest in playing with little girls. According to Freud, he is in the latency stage.

Select one:

True

False

According to Hippocrates, if my temper is out of control, I need to check the balance of my green bile.

Select one:

True

False

According to Hippocrates, too much phlegm may make me sluggish and apathetic.

Select one:

True

False

Adler called the individual’s attempts to overcome physical weaknesses ________.

Select one:

a. Reciprocity

b. Fictional finalism

c. Compensation

d. Reaction formation

The Rorschach personality test relies on a subject telling stories based on cards depicting human figures in various poses?

Select one:

True

False

Freud believed that personality is formed around ________ structures.

Select one:

a. five

b. two

c. three

d. four

“Relative” is one of the three basic characteristics of personality as presented in your lecture notes.

Select one:

True

False

Without using the ego, one way the id can obtain gratification is through the reality principle.

Select one:

True

False

For Freud, the seething cauldron of unconscious urges and desires continuously seeking expression is the ego.

Select one:

True

False

For both Bandura and Rotter, a person’s expectancies become a critical part of his or her ________.

Select one:

a. explanatory style

b. self-actualizing tendency

c. ideal self

d. persona

For Horney, self-actualization is a stronger motivating force than is sex

Select one:

True

False

According to your text, personality is stable.

Select one:

True

False

Adler felt that some people become so fixated on their feelings of inadequacy that they develop ________.

Select one:

a. neurotic trends

b. an archetype

c. a fixation

d. an inferiority complex

According to Freud, a girl’s sexual attachment to her father and jealousy of her mother is called ________.

Select one:

a. the Electra complex

b. the Oedipus complex

c. countertransference

d. transference

For Freud, the term “sexual instinct” refers to ________.

Select one:

a. erotic sexuality

b. the personal unconscious

c. any form of pleasure

d. childhood experiences

According to Jung, people who base their actions on their perceptions, senses, and intuition are ________.

Select one:

a. introverts

b. irrational individuals

c. extraverts

d. rational individuals

Terry Francis, a world famous psychologist, argues that behavior is the end product of a variety of some conscious and mostly unconscious forces interacting within a person’s mind. Terry Francis is most likely a behavioral psychologist

Select one:

True

False

Collective memories of experiences people have had in common since prehistoric times, such as mothers, heroes, or villains are called ________ by Carl Jung

Select one:

a. archetypes

b. personas

c. parasymbols

d. animas

The best known and most influential psychodynamic theorist is ________.

Select one:

a. Watson

b. Maslow

c. Skinner

d. Freud

According to Jung, our repressed thoughts, undeveloped ideas, and forgotten experiences are contained in the collective unconscious.

Select one:

True

False

According to Jung, people who regulate actions by thinking and feeling are ________.

Select one:

a. irrational individuals

b. introverts

c. extraverts

d. rational individuals

According to Jung, a person who usually focuses on his or her own thoughts and feelings is a(n) introvert.

Select one:

True

False

According to Hippocrates, black bile could be responsible for a person’s depression.

Select one:

True

False

When an individual’s self-concept is closely matched with his or her inborn capacities, then that person is likely to become what Rogers calls a(n) ________ person.

Select one:

a. fully functioning

b. fully rational

c. actualizing

d. harmoniously integrated

Horney believed that sexual factors are the most important factors shaping personality.

Select one:

True

False

According to William Seldon, the lactomorphic body type signals an artistic, introverted temperament.

Select one:

True

False

Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt corresponds approximately with Freud’s ________ stage.

Select one:

a. oral

b. genital

c. genital

d. phallic

Erik is a newborn. According to Erikson, his main task will be to develop a sense of autonomy.

Select one:

True

False

Jack is 24 years old. His major task, according to Erikson, is to develop a sense of identity.

Select one:

True

False

According to William Seldon, the endomorphic body type is likely to display a relaxed and sociable demeanor

Select one:

True

False

In Rogers’s theory, the full acceptance and love of another person regardless of that person’s behavior is called ________.

Select one:

a. Psychological congruence

b. Self-actualization

c. Unconditional positive regard

d. Psychosynthesis

According to Rogers, the primary goal of life is to ________.

Select one:

a. understand one’s personal ancestral history

b. harmoniously unify the id, ego, and superego

c. successfully overcome the developmental challenges

d. fulfill one’s inborn capacities and potentialities

Gerald takes great pride in his sexual prowess and treats women with contempt. Yet, he feels worthless and has low self-esteem. In Freud’s view, he is probably fixated in the oral stage.

Select one:

True

False

The accuracy and usefulness of projective tests depends largely on ________.

Select one:

a. the age of the client

b. the type of disorder being diagnosed

c. whether the client likes taking tests

d. the skill of the examiner

According to William Sheldon, the mesomorphic body type indicates a courageous and assertive personality.

Select one:

True

False

According to Freud, a boy’s sexual attachment to his mother and jealousy of his father is called ________.

Select one:

a. countertransference

b. transference

c. the Electra complex

d. the Oedipus complex

Each of the following is one of the “Big Five” dimensions of personality EXCEPT ________.

Select one:

a. Emotional stability

b. Neuroticism

c. Agreeableness

d. Extraversion

According to Freud, the ego operates ________.

Select one:

a. only preconsciously

b. only unconsciously

c. partly consciously, partly preconsciously, and partly unconsciously

d. only unconsciously

Jerry has a very immature attitude about sex and sucks his thumb even though he is 32 years old. Freud would say these behaviors result from libido.

Select one:

True

False

Each of the following is an advantage of projective tests EXCEPT ________.

Select one:

a. because the tests are flexible, people can take them in a relaxed atmosphere

b. They have higher reliability and validity than objective tests.

c. some psychologists believe that projective tests can uncover unconscious thoughts and fantasies

d. since the person taking the test often doesn’t know its true purpose, responses are less likely to be faked

Barney is a person who believes he can control his own fate. He feels that by hard work, skill, and training it is possible to avoid punishments and find rewards. Rotter would say that Barney has a(n) external locus of control.

Select one:

True

False

In assessing personality, we are MOST interested in a person’s ________ behavior

Select one:

a. best

b. worst

c. typical

d. atypical

Ralph is a private person. He keeps other people at a distance by putting on a public “face” that is nearly the opposite of his inner, true self. Jung called this public “face” worn by Ralph the persona.

Select one:

True

False

A study of the “Big Five” dimensions of personality found that ________ were reliable predictors of job performance in sales.

Select one:

a. none of them

b. conscientiousness and extraversion

c. all five of them

d. agreeableness and neuroticism

Erikson stresses the quality of ________ in personality development

Select one:

a. stimulus motives

b. sexual motives

c. parent-child relationships

d. primary-process thinking

The unconscious is best defined as ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are not and cannot normally become aware .

Select one:

True

False

According to Bandura, standards people develop in order to rate the adequacy of their own behavior in variety of situations are called ________.

Select one:

a. reciprocal variables

b. conditions of worth

c. performance standards

d. self-efficacy standards

The proper chronological order of Freud’s psychosexual stages is ________.

Select one:

a. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

b. anal, oral, phallic, latency, genital

c. oral, anal, genital, phallic, latency

d. anal, oral, genital, latency, phallic

________ theory emphasizes that humans are positively motivated and progress toward higher levels of functioning.

Select one:

a. Social Learning

b. Humanistic

c. Psychoanalytic

d. Trait

The unique pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and situations is called ________.

Select one:

a. personality

b. a habit

c. learning

d. a trait

Horney disagreed with many of Freud’s ideas, but particularly those regarding ________.

Select one:

a. his emphasis on unconscious processes affecting conscious functioning

b. the importance of early childhood in shaping adult personality

c. the importance of defense mechanisms in protecting the ego from anxiety.

d. his analysis of women and his emphasis on sexual instincts

Audrey is a normal, healthy two-year-old. Her main task, according to Erikson, will be to develop a sense of autonomy.

Select one:

True

False

Erikson suggested that success in each of the life stages he outlined depends upon adjustment during the previous stage .

Select one:

True

False

According to Bandura, the expectancy that one’s efforts will be successful is called self-esteem.

Select one:

True

False

In Rogers’s theory, the full acceptance and love of another person regardless of that person’s behavior is called archetypes.

True

False

According to Hippocrates, a surplus of blood may cause confusion and anxiety.

True

False

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