For this discussion, synthesize your understanding of career counseling as an integral part of human development. From the perspective of your specialization, how does the developmental lifespan perspective influence career and educational planning, placement, and evaluation? Discuss the influence of career counseling when working with children (elementary school), adolescents (secondary), and older adults. Identify models that would be appropriate for children and adolescents in the school setting, including identity models such as Erik Erickson.
Respond to at least two of your peers, commenting on the effectiveness with which your peer addressed each developmental stage, identifying the needs of elementary, secondary, and older adults. The response needs to include at least one reference
First peer posting
Career Counseling as an Integral Part of Human Development
Career development is not a one-time event, rather it is a process that occurs across the lifespan and is an integral part of human development. Further, the counseling that may be offered to support career development must also be offered from a lifespan perspective, with counselors supporting a client’s unique needs at the various stages of their life and career. Zunker (2016) also points out that changing cultural and environmental systems can effect human development, and best practice involves case conceptualization from a holistic perspective. Humans are actively growing and changing throughout their lives, and their vocational interests, goals, and preferences are no exception. Career counseling is a dynamic and lifelong process that evolves with each client throughout the course of their life.
The Developmental Lifespan Model Influence on Career and Educational Planning, Placement, and Evaluation
From a mental health counseling perspective, the developmental lifespan model of career planning is highly influential. Mental health counselors will need to be prepared to address all phases of career counseling in all phases or stages of a client’s life. Career and education planning begin in early childhood and continue throughout the course of life. Mental health counselors will need to be aware of the foundational career needs of the children they serve, and be prepared to focus on improved social skills, industry, and communication skills. When working with adolescents, mental health counselors also need to be aware of the importance of developing quality relationships outside of their family, and how these interpersonal skills will benefit them later in the workforce. Also, mental health counselors will need to understand life stages when selecting assessment tools, conducting evaluations, and placing individuals in jobs.
The Influence of Career Counseling When Working With Children, Adolescents, and Older Adults
Career counseling can easily be integrated into work with children by focusing on the foundational skills necessary for successful education, vocational, and social experiences. Some of the foundational skills that counselors can focus on with children include prosocial skills, positive work habits, diversity skills, pleasing personality traits, and entrepreneurship (Gysbers, 2013). Counseling work with adolescents can begin to focus on planning, goal setting, and decision making skills, along with a focus on curricula that supports a possible career direction. Interestingly, Newman and Newman (2012) highlight the concept of career maturity, which suggests postponing career decisions until an adolescent or young adult matures and gains valuable life experience. Career counseling with adults in the new workforce places more emphasis on career development than remaining at a particular company (Zunker, 2016). Retirement counseling should also be highlighted as individuals move to transition from the world of work to increased volunteer and leisure opportunities. Finally, more retired individuals are going back to work on a part time basis in order to supplement their retirement income, and may require counseling to make this change.
Appropriate Career Counseling Models for Children and Adolescents, Including Erik Erickson’s Model
Stage theorists such as Erik Erickson conceptualize career counseling from the developmental life stage that a particular client is navigating. Between the ages of 6 to 11, for example, children are actively learning a variety of social, academic, and work related skills that will create a foundation for later more complex career development. This stage of development is also associated with achievement of self-efficacy and an understanding of the importance of productivity. Adolescents are actively working on the developmental task of achieving a group and individual identity and avoiding isolation. Adolescents work hard to expand their social circles and distance themselves from their parents in an effort to achieve independence (Newman & Newman, 2012). An overarching principal associated with Erickson’s stage model is that children or adolescents who fail to successfully achieve their developmental tasks may require special supports later in life (Zunker, 2016). Career counseling from this stage model would consider this developmental information as the foundation from which to create a comprehensive career plan.
Other career counseling models appropriate for children and adolescents include Super’s self-concept theory, Krumboltz’s learning theory, and cognitive development theory. Because elementary school students are busy forming their identity or self-concept through their childhood relationships, Super’s self-concept theory may be applied (Zunker, 2016). Krumboltz’s learning theory looks at the way that children and adolescents utilize observation in learning new things, and are able to adapt their behavior based on this observational learning (Zunker, 2016). Piaget’s cognitive development theory is also a stage theory in that it views children’s knowledge acquisition as developing in specific steps or levels through their environmental engagement.