(The following question originates from Exercise (2) of Chapter 10, on page 206 of your textbook. Fill in the blanks using your knowledge of the…


Please follow this format when providing your answers:

Ex1. Greek: —; Latin: c; English: h Ex2. Greek: c; Latin: c; English: h

For (d), make sure to fill in both of the blanks for the English word.

2. There is good evidence that Proto-Indo-European had “labiovelar” sounds such as /kʷ/ and /ɡʷ/, which were velar stops pronounced with rounded lips. There is also good evidence that the pronunciation of these sounds changed to become /p/ and /b/ in Ancient Greek (see Table 10.2 in your textbook, on page 192). Why do you think the pronunciation of /kʷ/ and /ɡʷ/ changed to become /p/ and /b/ in particular, rather than any other pair of sounds (such as /t/ and /d/, for instance)? That is, what makes this sound change unsurprising from a phonetic point of view?

(2 points for the right answer; 1 point for an answer that seems on the right track but doesn’t quite hit the mark; 0 points otherwise)

3.Why do you think /kʷ/ became /p/ in particular, and /ɡʷ/ became /b/ in particular? That is, why didn’t /kʷ/ become /b/ and /ɡʷ/ become /p/?

4.The following words aren’t English words. But based on what we’ve learned so far in this course, we should be able to guess what these words might mean if people began to use them. What do you think the following words would mean?Note that each of these words corresponds to a real Latin participle. And note also that each of these words consists only of word elements that appear in the back of your textbook (though some of these may have predictable allomorphs thataren’t listed in your textbook).

a. petent b. auct c. memorant (Note: If you’re confused about the spelling of the suffix, read the first few sections of the “Verbs” section of chapter 9, beginning on p. 178.) d. transferendum

(Note: Some of these words may have limited usage as technical terms. Please don’t provide these technical terms as the definitions of these words! The point of this question is for you to come up with a reasonable definition on your own, not to look up the meanings of obscure words.)

5. (This question originates from Element Study question (3b) in chapter 9 of your textbook, on page 184.)

Consider the word occasion. This word has a prefix. Taking into account the rules discussed in questions (6i–ii) of the midterm, what do you think the basic form of the prefix of this word is? (Use the word elements provided in your textbook to help you.)

(2 points for the right answer. 1 point if you’re close.)

6. (This question is a continuation of the previous question)

In addition to having a prefix, the word occasion also has the root cad and the suffix -tion. There are two things about this that should surprise you: you should be surprised that (i) the a of cad does not weaken, and you should be surprised that(ii) the word is not spelled occassion. There is a very simple property of the word occasion that accounts for both of these facts. Read the first paragraph of page 125 of your textbook, then read the very last paragraph of page 126 (the one that finishes on page 127). What is it about the word occasion that accounts for properties (i) and (ii)?

A few hints and tips:

1. Ignore the fact that cad does weaken in words like incident. There is an explanation for this fact as well, but it is too complicated to go into here. It will make your life far easier if you simply pretend that words like incident don’t exist.

2. It may help to read the last paragraph of page 121 as well (the paragraph finishes on page 122).

3. To check your answer, try looking up the etymology of occasion in the Oxford English Dictionary. In particular, look at the Latin “etymons” of occasion. (An etymon is a word or morpheme from which a later word is derived.)

(Same grading scheme as the previous question)


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