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Formal Outline Instructions

Due on Thursday, March 24

Upload on Blackboard and bring to class to discuss with classmates

General Guidelines for Formal Outline:

·      Your outline should clearly communicate your main points and a logical organization. 

·      Use complete sentences.

·      Include your sources in the outline when information comes from sources.

·      Include a References page for any sources that you put in the outline.

·      Should be at least two pages long, not including the reference page.

·      Note:  This sample is not a perfect outline, but it will give you a general idea of what I am expecting.  You do not have to have this much detail, but you must use complete sentences and include references to your sources.  

Formal Outline Example

I.               Introduction

Hook and/or background on the topic: 

a.    Many people struggle with the concept of identity.

b.    It is very important for humans to identify themselves with particular groups or characteristics, because identifications affect their position in society wherever they live. 

c.     People need to fully understand their own ethnicities, nationalities, races, religions, or a particular belief in order to find their own identities.  

d.    Finding the comfortable identity is more challenging for immigrant children of the United States not because they are too young to identify their ethnicities or nationalities, but because of they identify with two cultures.

e.    They are facing difficulties in the process of choosing their cultures and languages.

Thesis Statement:It may be true that prohibiting immigrant children from using their first languages in school is the best way to help the children to develop their English. However, teachers should respect and help students to value their first language because language is part of their identities.

II.              Topic sentence: Retaining native culture and language help children to shape their identities.

a.    According to Bosher’s study it is significant for children immigrants to retain their native culture and language in order to find their identities (601).

b.    They feel isolated even though they acquire perfect English because they are having difficulties in communicating with their native people (Pao, Wong, and Teuben-Rowe 627).

c.     Bosher discovers that most of participants in her study, who have a strong sense of cultural identification, describe their lifestyles as bicultural and identify themselves as Hmong American (597).

III.            Topic Sentence:  Family attitudes have a big impact on the social identity of immigrant children.

a.    Family attitudes had big impact on developing children’s identities; parents helped their children to have confidence about their native cultures and language, and also taught children to be involved in both cultures (Pao, Wong, and Teuben-Rowe 626).

b.    Monolingual participants felt a negative impact from both of their cultures because they felt left out from both groups (Pao, Wong, and Teuben-Rowe627).

IV.           Topic Sentence:  Teachers can support families in valuing and retaining the home culture.

a.    Teachers should support their students to retain their home culture even though they are living in an English-speaking environment because their cultures influence language (Pao, Wong, and Teuben-Rowe629). (Topic sentence for paragraph 4)

b.    Culture influences language because if people do not know their cultures, they cannot fully understand about their native languages because every culture has different way of saying many different words.

c.     For example, Dei gives example of from the Indonesian language. Ways of asking the simple question of “Are you going to eat rice and kassavanow?” is different whether the other party is a close friend of the speaker, just an acquaintance of the same social class, or of a higher social class. The same word that means ‘to eat’ changes to ‘mangan’between close friends, ‘neda’within the same social class, and ‘dahar’for higher social classes (2). These are the word forms that only Indonesians can understand, if they are fully involved in their culture.

V.             Topic Sentence:  While on the one hand culture shapes languages, on the other hand it is also formed by them; languages influence ethnic identities.

a.    According to Ovando & Collier, language gives big impact on children forming national identity (qtd. in Pao, Wong, and Teuben-Rowe 622).

b.    Gumperz & Coo-Gumperz also add that the power of language not only gives humans ability to have conversation with each other but also represents belonging in a group (qtd. in Pao, Wong, and Teuben-Rowe 622).



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